Saturday, August 12, 2017

Let There Be Light

Light traveling through space and time at constant velocity, c, represents the most fundamental action of our natural world. In fact, we only know that the world exists because we see light traveling at constant velocity and that constant velocity means that energy is equivalent to mass and also that space and time shrink and dilate with increasing relative velocity.


Instead of a universe of empty space and time with matter bonded by light, though, it is also possible to define the action of light as an oscillation of aether with matter bonded by aether exchange. Instead of light moving through space and time, light photons are stationary aether oscillations in the primitive coordinates of matter and action and it is the decay of aether shrinkage everywhere that observers see stationary aether oscillations that they call light. The observers of the universe flow to the aether oscillations of stationary light by aether exchange and it is not light that moves to observers from sources.

The equivalence of matter and energy is also fundamental in aethertime as it is in spacetime, but instead of space and time, it is the action of aether exchange that defines light as an oscillation. And it is from aether decay that space and time emerge from the action of aether.


We only know about the universe because of our encounters with light and so we quite naturally think of light moving from sources to observers in rather straight determinate paths. Thoughts that observers and the universe somehow shrinks toward the light are already confused concepts because of the use of terms that presume space and time. When we interact with a photon of light from a source, for some very short quantum decay time our matter becomes part of the source and the source becomes part of us. Therefore that quantum phase decay time is a very important part of physical reality.

Since energy is equivalent to mass, the energy of light is equivalent to an aether exchange oscillation with the aether field. Thus the action of light is equivalent to an exchange of aether at a frequency, ω, relative to the universe phase decay, mdot. Time and space both emerge from the natural oscillation and decay of the universe and that natural spontaneous oscillation and decay is the way things change.

Photons in science are states of vacuum oscillators and those oscillators fill empty space with an infinity of ground state energies. Aether photons are also an oscillation, but now of the very large but finite number of aether particles that make up the universe. Aether does not fill the empty vacuum of space over time but instead our notions of space and time emerge from the oscillation and decay of aether particle phase.

Instead of filling space with an infinity of vacuum oscillators for the action of photons of light, space and time emerge from the action of light as aether and the action of aether is what defines space and time in aethertime.

Monday, August 7, 2017

Ancient versus Today's Warrior Stories

Ancient warrior stories like that of Achilles in Homer's Iliad involve three different periods. The period of the Trojan war some 3200 years ago, some 400 years after the Trojan war 2800 years ago when Homer wrote his story, and today, when people still read and retell Achilles warrior stories like they happened yesterday. A recent essay in Aeon goes into much detail about Achilles' honor and propitiation where honor means redressing insult with anger by killing and pillage and propitiate means gaining the good will of the gods, usually also by killing and pillage but also by compassion and friendship within your own warrior culture. In modern times people still retell these ancient warrior stories and therefore in some sense continue to perpetuate these stories.

The Aeon essay retells stories about the brutality of warriors like Achilles, but also relates the compassion and friendship within Achilles' warrior culture. It really is not that clear that honor and propitiation are much more than justification for the angry selfishness of killing and pillage of one group by another group...or is it purely defense? Really, there are a large number of justifications for the selfish killing and pillage of war but the main one always seems to be competition for limited resources and a desire to acquire wealth and power, whether defensive or offensive. After all, the defense of one's own property and life is also the provenience of the warrior.

Civilization today faces yet another paroxysm of warrior stories driven by a different ideology than Achilles, but with much the same result...lots of people die with lots of property destroyed or taken from them by warriors for one reason or another. There seems to be issues with honor today as well as propitiation driving today's warrior cultures, and yet the essay does not draw the obvious comparisons of warrior stories of the past with those of today.

It seems that this retelling of Achilles' warrior stories after 2800 years avoids the obvious comparisons to the warrior stories of today. Killing for insult out of anger takes lives and property and fulfills one group's selfishness while sharing of the spoils and cooperation fulfills another group's compassion. However, only a very small fraction of people are part of today's warrior stories and the rest of us just read and repeat stories we hear from storytellers.

The obvious follow-on issue is the continuing desire of civilization to retell these ancient stories in all of their guises and therefore provide the seed for future warrior paroxysms. After all, people retell the stories that move them and forget the stories that do not move them. In a sense, the continuing popularity of warrior stories reflects a fundamental dynamic between compassion and selfishness that is as valid today as it was for Homer in his Achilles.

Wars then are not really an aberration of human nature but war is a part of human nature and warriors provide just another way for civilization to redistribute limited resources among different peoples with different ideologies. As civilization advances now to 7 billion people, it is clear that the warrior cults are a very small fraction of people but still a large number of people like to hear and retell warrior stories. Warrior stories still persist today because there are still limited resources and therefore conflicts among ideologies and warriors still one way to reallocate resources and power by killing and pillage.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Do We Matter in the Cosmos...

A recent Aeon essay Do we matter in the cosmos  by Nick Hughes opens with several sweeping statements of how insignificant  the matter and action of civilization and earth relative to the total matter and action of the universe. All of civilization is only 5-10,000 years within a universe of billions of years it would seem. It would take 100,000 years to cross our galaxy traveling at the speed of light and so with the limitations of matter and energy, people cannot visit other stars in the galaxy in the same way that people visit other places on earth.

The essay mentions causality briefly and Hughes does not evidently believe in the uncertainty of quantum futures and the fact that our matter is entangled with all of the matter in the universe. Quantum phase noise plays a particular role in our differentiation of a classical determinate reality from the many possible futures of the actual quantum reality in which we actually live.

In the end, though, Hughes essay does conclude that even though civilization is not very massive compared to the universe, the neural resonances and stories of civilization are most of what matters to us here on earth. So even though the size of the universe boggles the mind, so what?

"And whether or not they are objectively valuable, the ends that matter to us, the things that we care about most – our relationships, our projects and goals, our shared experiences, social justice, the pursuit of knowledge, the creation and appreciation of art, music and literature, and the future and fate of ours and other species – do not depend to any considerable extent on our having control over a vast but largely irrelevant Universe...Most of what matters to us is right here on Earth."

The essay argues that the size of the universe makes people seem insignificant in comparison, but does not mention that the size of the atom is part of a microscopic world and we also cannot personally visit the microscopic realm either. We also cannot visit the tens of thousands of miles of the vast matter of inner earth nor can we visit Venus' surface or the surface of the sun. So there are a lot of places that people cannot visit and yet there is no mention of our insignificance as a result of not being able to visit the sun or the inner earth.

People tell stories and share experiences and this storytelling limits the possible futures that people discover. Travel across the universe requires the matter equivalent energy of the universe and a journey to the our galaxy center and back would not take 58,000 years for those travelers. A space ship accelerating at 1 g and then using the supermassive black hole to slingshot a return to earth would only take about 25 years. Of course, during that journey earth would still age 58,000 years according to relativity and the spaceship would return to a very different earth.



Also, the matter equivalent energy needed to maintain 1 g acceleration for 15 years is beyond science today but there might be ways to use galaxy spiral gravity boosts for a journey at this scale. Gravity waves, after all, are something that science is just learning about and so maybe we can catch a gravity wave and surf our way to the galaxy center. It would take the matter equivalent of ~600 MW nuclear reactor to accelerate a 100 MT ship at 1 g for a year.

We do matter in the cosmos since it is us who determines what matters to us and not anybody outside of our own local universe. The definition of a universe is the matter and action that we affect and that affects us during our lives. The universe that we imagine does not exist until we experience that universe and so we are in fact the most important part of our own universe since neither it nor its uncertain future would exist without us.

Saturday, June 17, 2017

The Answer...to the Meaning and Purpose of Life...

It is really a pleasure to discover the unification of charge and gravity forces and maybe one day others will experience a similar pleasure of discovery...and maybe not. But at least the pleasure is out there waiting for another's discovery.

The pleasure of discovery is a key fundamental purpose and gives meaning for all that we do. The discovery of the role of quantum phase decay in both gravity and charge is very gratifying even though no one else on the planet seems to appreciate the simplicity of aethertime decay.

It is truly amazing how resistant mainstream science is to the existence of an expanding force along with a shrinking space and time. Even the very smartest people cannot seem to see how the simple aethertime principle of phase decay now shows how the universe really works. Space and time are very useful notions that are limited in that the universe is actually made up of matter and action from which space and time emerge.

We get meaning and purpose in our lives by choosing a future from among many possible quantum futures. The emotions of the primitive mind determine choice and the pleasure of discovery tempered by an anxiety about the very real dangers of the unknown are part of life's primal meaning. But it is phase decay that creates our classical reality and quantum phase decay that makes choice fundamentally unknowable.

Aethertime's simple quantum phase decay will simply end many careers in string or loop quantum theories. The purpose of whole institutes becomes moot with such a simple solution as quantum phase decay. Quantum phase decay is related to the ratio of gravity to charge forces as shown below and so gravity force is simply related to charge force wrapped around the size of the universe. While science now defines the universe size in terms of space and time, matter us what truly defines the universe size.

It is from the action of the gravity matter of the universe that classical space and time both emerge and so relativity is a consequence of gravity mass action. While general relativity states that gravity matter distorts space and time, gravity is not a result of spacetime distortion but rather it is actually the other way around. In other words, the mass actions of the universe quantum phase decay do not really exist in space and time, mass and action exist like the simple yin and yang of the Dao. Space and time both emerge from the actions of matter, which makes gravity simply the quantum action of matter wrapped by the amount of universe matter. The same discrete quantum aether particle exchange becomes the basis for both quantum charge and quantum gravity.


All atoms produce quantum phase noise as a result of the quantum action of electrons and protons and neutrons. Quantum phase noise is what makes our classical reality real since it is by quantum phase decay that superposition and entanglement collapse into classical reality. What mainstream science does not yet recognize is that even gravity is a result of an intrinsic quantum phase as shown below.


Friday, May 19, 2017

Trapped in a Shell of Continuous Space and Time

We largely exist as conscious beings trapped in a shell of continuous space and time that we call our universe. However, the universe includes other sources besides space and time and our true primitive reality consists of discrete matter and action from which emerge space and time. Most macroscopic action conforms to the limitations of our space and time shell, but there are actions that go beyond space and time. The actions of black holes, for example, as well as the actions of very small scale. In fact, the feelings that we have about the world are not limited by space and time and it is by those feelings that we can know more about the primitive reality of matter and action.

Matter and action both obviously exist and describe not only the matter that makes up a static world, but also the action that is how matter changes. Instead of a reality where matter and action occur within space and time, our true reality is matter and action. We want to make reality as simple as possible but cannot seem to break out of the shell of space and time to better understand matter and action from which space and time emerge.

Space and time allow us to know certain limited things about the universe and then we need to use feeling to understand the parts of the universe like quantum phase that we cannot know directly. By subjective feeling, we can learn how to choose among many possible quantum futures despite a classical anxiety about the unknown. Just like we feel pleasure in the discovery by our choices, we also feel anxious about the possible dangers in those choices.

The universe of matter and action includes sources of quantum phase noise that we can never really directly know because of the limitations of consciousness. However, the feelings that we have do entangle with the quantum phase noise that is part of our consciousness as well as part of every sources. Sources whose action that we can observe become part of our spacetime reality while sources that we only feel and believe in become part of our quantum phase reality.

The electron and proton of a hydrogen atom is an example of a source that we can know in space and time. However, the quantum gravity phase noise associated with the actions of the electron and proton represents a very weak noise that entangles all matter. An observer sees the atom but can only feel the entanglement of quantum phase noise as shown. This entanglement is what makes reality seem real since all macroscopic sources under very rapid phase decay.

Rapid quantum phase decay for large sources is what makes reality appear to behave so classically and gives us the feeling of space and time. Each discrete moment of reality involves a superposition of not only past actions, but also of possible futures. When we choose a particular future, the other possible futures rapidly decay away and that one future becomes the next discrete moment.


When we choose to break or not break an egg, there is a very short time that a superposition reality exists before the future that we choose becomes reality.


Saturday, May 6, 2017

Theory of Everything

Frank Close’s new book Theories of Everything is good, short, and to the point. Nima Arkani-Hamed wrote a similar albeit less historical essay in Daedalus in 2012 The Future of Fundamental Physics. Their basic conclusion is that science is locked up in a shell of space and time and has thus far not been able to find a way within space and time to a TOE that unites gravity and quantum. And thanks to Woits Not Even Wrong blog and his review of Close's book

Of course quantum gravity is the key to a TOE that unites gravity and charge, but understanding quantum gravity will also lead to an understanding of the quantum nature of consciousness. As Close suggests in his book and also Arkani-Hamed states in his 2012 Daedalus essay, science needs an understanding of the universe of matter and quantum action instead of the closed shell of a universe of space and time.


Our intuition of a classical universe with cause and effect is a very useful way to predict macro action, but fails for micro quantum action. Evolution has selected our neural mind with a classical spectrometer that does not measure quantum phase decay. Evolution’s classical consciousness allows us to keep track of sources in space and time quite well.

Unfortunately, that same intuition is what locks us all up inside of a shell of continuous space and time, which appear to be the places and durations of source change. How matter changes, though, is really called action and therefore all motion in space and time emerges from the action of mass and all action is limited by a discrete quantum step as an exchange of a particle of matter. Therefore the quantum universe is a simple matter spectrum of action that involves shrinking matter and expanding force. Thus it is from the differential of action with matter that both space and time emerge as very useful ways for consciousness to keep track of source actions.

Close notes that the Higgs field sound a lot like the aether of early science and yet if the universe were made of aether and action instead of space and time, aether would not actually fill space. Rather it would be from the action of aether that space emerges and the same aether that makes up atoms also makes up the space between atoms. Instead of atoms existing in the continuum of space and time, space emerges from the discrete action of aether. Particular aether actions make up electrons, protons, and neutrons and then other aether actions make up the space and time between atoms.

Atoms change by aether exchange and particular kinds of changes we call motion in continuous space and time. General relativity works well at many scales because it is based on the basic notions of a space and time shell within which light speed is constant and mass depends on relative velocity.

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Making Reality Real

What is it that makes reality real? Most people basically believe that there is a classical reality in the sense that they firmly believe in actions that they see or observe are made of mass and further believe that other people believe the same way. Such classical observers further believe that the actions that they see come from something and do not come from nothing and so there is a cause for everything that happens in the universe.

The observers who believe more in the things that they feel as opposed to the things they see do not believe that other people necessarily feel the same way that they feel about their beliefs. Since these subjective observers believe in feelings and things that they cannot see as well as things that they can see, they believe some things can then come from nothing and that there are supernatural reasons for some things that happen in the universe.

Reality generally meets the expectations of a classical observer except that sources do have properties like quantum phase decay that observers do not normally sense. Quantum phase decay throws a few quirks into a determinate classical reality in that quantum phase decay represents unseen time and space dimensions apart from classical matter and action. The microscopic quantum motion and phase of charge in every atom and molecule means that there are corresponding gravity fluctuations or quantum phase noise everywhere that has the same phase as the quantum charge motion. This quantum phase noise is then a part of reality that people do not sense or know but quantum phase noise still exists.

Observers and all of the sources they observe are made of the same charge and quantum phase noise that makes up all of the universe. A quantum observer necessarily exchanges matter and bonds with a source and that bond necessarily involves some amount of quantum phase coherence as well. That is, quantum observer phase becomes coherent with source phase and forms a superposition state that may decay away or even persist for billions of years.

Although gravity actions are largely classical, there is an underlying quantum gravity action that has the same phase coherence decay as quantum charge. The coupling between charge and gravity action is very subtle and difficult to sense and therefore to know. Neural action potentials are examples of this very subtle coupling between gravity and charge neural action has a lot to do with making reality real.


Consciousness in particular involves neural action potentials that choose gravity actions and those quantum choices are what make classical reality real for people. However, while classical observers readily see the causes and results of classical action, they do not always see or understand the causes and results of neural action. Why observers and animals make the choices that they do is not always apparent nor are all of the neural actions that result from memory of sensation but that do not immediately result in action.

Thus quantum consciousness links quantum charge and classical gravity. Quantum consciousness is the only way that science can ever understand the underlying quantum gravity of classical gravity and relativity.

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Biphoton Inspiral

The matter-energy equivalence principle shows that the energy of a photon of light is equivalent to mass and the mass of an atom therefore increases when it absorbs light. In fact, the sun's gravity bends the path of a photon just like a the sun's gravity bends the path of a passing asteroid and so sufficiently energetic photons will attract each other and merge into matter. The Higgs boson at 125 GeV collision of two protons is consistent with the inspiral merger of two photons, a biphoton, at 125 GeV to make two hydrogen atoms along with a lot of other particles.

Just like the inspiral merger of two black holes, a photon pair inspiral merger is what makes up each particle of matter with complementary photons trapped in each others gravity wells. Thus all matter is equivalent to a bound photon pair resonance that we interpret as electrons, protons, and neutrons of matter.
Photons travel at the speed of light, c, and the photon pair emits a gravity wave as they inspiral and eventually merge into matter at an event horizon. But matter is not stable until certain photon thresholds and so the electron is the simplest photon superposition. Spinning black holes are large matter accretions that likewise involve the inspiral of photons.

The biphoton nature of matter is completely consistent with the electrons, protons, and neutrons that science observes along with the particle zoo of higher energy matter. The biphoton hydrogen exists because of the emission of a Rydberg photon at the CMB creation, where all matter condensed from the primordial cold photon vapor. The Rydberg photons of all matter exist today as the CMB and their entanglement with matter today is what we call gravity, the basic force that holds biphotons together as matter.

Charge force is then a particular resonance between the electron and proton biphoton that satisfies the quantum action of the Schrödinger equation and h/c2. The Rydberg biphoton is the archetype of the universe and forms the inner and outer forces that science calls charge and gravity. While the Rydberg photon emitted at the CMB creation is responsible for gravity, the Rydberg photon exchange is the bond between an electron and proton in hydrogen.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Entanglement of Quantum Feeling

A quantum theory of feeling needs to define the nature of superposition and entanglement for people's feelings for each other. Any choice that you make in life involves the superposition of two possible futures; one to excite action and the other to inhibit action. Therefore quantum feeling necessarily means that choice involves the superposition or entanglement of two quantum states of feeling and the subsequent decay of that superposition into one or the other futures.

Since emotion is the basic mechanism the drives feeling and therefore determines choice in the primitive brain, we need a simple model of emotion to describe quantum feeling. The integration of five emotion dimensions represents human feeling reasonably well with the notion that feeling is how we choose to excite or inhibit action and therefore feeling is singular even while emotion has five dimensions. While rational thought occupies much of consciousness, the primitive thought of emotion and memory are how people really choose with quantum free will.

The further machine of consciousness is why we are aware and why we can make choices and why consciousness is fundamentally entangles quantum emotions and feelings. The emotions of pleasure and anxiety are the most important emotions that determine survival. People get pleasure in discovering the world, pleasure in breathing, pleasure in drinking, and pleasure in eating. However, people are also anxious about the dangers of the world, anxious about breathing foul air, anxious about bad water, and anxious  about toxic food. Without anxiety, people would take risks that would lead to injury or death even though we do not desire excessive anxiety.

For family and community, compassion and selfishness are the extremes of these important emotions. Compassion is how people bond and selfishness is how people conflict. Yet all people must be selfish to the extent of survival and even more selfish to accumulate and share their wealth with compassion.

Anger and serenity are very important emotions that help people set limits for other's behaviors. People get angry when they feel injustice or unfairness and people experience serenity when they are satisfied and happy with life.

We maintain a social order with the emotions of pride and shame for belonging and setting standards and ethics that help people bond to civilization. Civilization's laws and norms are a kind of contract that we believe in and pride and shame are the emotions that drive choices to keep that contract.

Finally, joy and misery are sort of the kind of residual emotions that help people be satisfied or dissatisfied with actions in their lives. Misery can drive people to make changes in their lives just as joy can show that life is desirable.

The emotion spectrum below shows how this set of five emotion dimensions reduces to a singular feeling and by that singular feeling, we choose to excite or inhibit an action.

The primitive brain makes our decisions for us with a set of very specialized brain organs that all come together into the amygdala, which is the decision point where quantum superposition drives quantum free will. The caudate and thalmus are both important for emotion and of course, the hypocampus entangles choice with the long term memories that also contribute.

While people often believe that choice lies in the rational cerebral brain that forms the aware matter of moments of thought, science tells us that people actually choose to excite or inhibit action before they become conscious of their choice.

Friday, February 17, 2017

Quantavangelism

There are really two very different approaches for predicting how things happen in the universe; classical determinism with its knowable chaos and quantum probability with its unknowable phase noise. Classical predictions are very familiar and are the typical ways that we experience the universe and every classical effect has a knowable classical cause. Quantum predictions can be quite different from classical predictions since quantum actions happen with only likely and not certain causes and therefore not knowable. The challenge for this new quantavangelism is to promote that it is okay to believe that some things happen for unknowable causes. 

In a classical determinate prediction, observers and sources are completely interchangeable and all things happen with fundamentally knowable, albeit sometimes very complex and chaotic, causes. Although the chaos of classical noise does limit even what a classical observer can know, in a determinate classical universe, everything happens because of a knowable cause and even noise is ultimately knowable. Gravity action is largely classical and so how we perceive the world is also largely classical and so it is quite natural to suppose that is the way the universe must be as well. However, quantum logic tells us otherwise...

An electron always exists in a superposition of up and down spin states in an orbit around a nucleus as shown is an example of the duality of classical and quantum predictions. Classically, the electron has a knowable path as an orbit around a nucleus, but the quantum path of the electron has both wave and particle properties. The quantum electron exists in symmetric sphere around the nucleus in an S orbit is a superposition spin state, but the spin state exists in one side of a charge plane in a P orbit as up and the other side as down. 


Excitation of the electron into each successive orbit reduces the classical electron velocity by a factor of two and therefore its kinetic energy by four until eventual ionization. The complementary capture of an electron into the S ground state occurred with the emission of a photon and that photon phase entangles the spin phase of the electron. Since the universe is actually not classical, quantum observers and sources are not interchangeable for quantum probabilistic predictions.

In other words, a quantum observer of an electron path or spin cannot predict a precise but only a likely quantum future for that spin. Quantum observer and source are inextricably entangled in the surreal quantum world. Although the chaos of classical noise also limits what a quantum observer can know about a source, in addition, there is quantum phase noise. Unlike the chaos of classical noise, quantum phase noise entangles an observer with a source in ways that the observer cannot ever know. Fundamentally this means that there are quantum effects for an action that do not have knowable causes.

Things happen in the universe because of the actions of both classical gravity biphotons and quantum charge photons. Since gravity biphotons and charge photons are very different magnitudes of force, mainstream science treats them as two very different forces and this also means that there are two very different kinds of observers; one for classical gravity and another for quantum charge. Without a unified photon exchange force that explains both gravity and charge, a classical observer will not see a source the same way as a quantum observer sees the same source.


Saturday, January 28, 2017

CSL Quantum Phase Noise versus the Classical Noise of Chaos

One of the consequences of the decay of quantum phase noise is that both a source and observer masses shrink even while their charge and gravity forces expand. There is a model called continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) that arbitrarily creates a phase noise decay time and distance in order to make quantum wavefunctions for macroscopic objects real without an observer. The assumptions vary, but one proposed decay time is 1e-17 s-1 at a length of 1e-5 cm, which compares very well to the aethertime values of 0.81e-17 s-1 and 0.7e-5 cm. Unlike CSL, though, the aethertime decay and length simply arise from the assumptions of a fundamental aether decay and so there are no new constants in aethertime...just reinterpretations of current constants.

The aether decay constant comes from the ratio of gravity to charge forces between two hydrogen atoms and is
𝛼dot = mH² G / (q²  1e-7) c / rB = 0.81e-17 s-1
and is the frequency of the Bohr atom fluctuations, c/rB, scaled by the ratio of gravity to charge forces. Thus, this is the amount of gravity noise compared to charge noise and is normally quite small. But, at the radius where gravity force equals dispersion or van der Waals force between two hydrogen atoms, gravity noise then equals charge noise. The dispersion radius of two hydrogens is where dispersion and gravity energies are equal and is at
rd = (3/4 EH ap2 / G / mH2)1/5 = 0.7e-5 cm = 70 nm
where ap = 3peorB3 is the hydrogen atom polarizability.

Thus, the very nature of quantum aether shows the inherent property of phase decay and phase decay drives both gravity and charge forces just at very different scales. The Hubble constant in aethertime is just simply H = 𝛼dotc, the product of the aether decay and the speed of light in this epoch.

Here is a graph that shows the decay of the international standard for mass, the IPK, over the last century or so relative to a series of sister standards that are used for calibration. Primary and secondary standards are carefully cleaned before each use in a rigorous procedure that does alter the standard's mass. Therefore specialists have carefully designed a cleaning procedure that does not change the mass of these secondary relics and as a result, the secondary standards on average do not change mass.

In contrast to the fixed mass of the sister standards due to cleaning, the IPK has only been cleaned and measured the three times as shown and so the IPK shows the decay of mass predicted by the universal mass decay constant, mdot, as shown. The mdot equation depends on the fundamental constants of charge, q, speed of light, c, fine structure constant, α, and charge cross section, Aq. The mdot constant represents a fundamental aether decay of the universe that drives both charge and gravity forces. Ironically, while mass decays, charge and gravity forces grow in contrast to the prevailing notions of mainstream science.


Classically, there is no way for mass to decay by decoherence although mass is equivalent to the energy of light and so mass can transform into light and light back into mass as well. The transient species called positronium is a bound state of an electron with its antimatter positron decays by quantum phase noise into two photons of light after less than a microsecond. By the principles of microscopic reversibility, two photons can collide and produce postronium or indeed many different kinds of matter.

However, classical matter cannot decay by quantum phase decoherence into nothing since there is no classical meaning for quantum phase noise. Thus the classical universe is in some sense ultimately driven by noise and not by purpose. The butterfly effect is a an example of classical noise from the flapping butterfly wing and that even that slight noise can effect the course of a hurricane. Noise is what limits the precision of any measurement of a source property and when the fluctuations of noise dominate purpose, the noise of classical chaos drives purpose, not choice.

A person's success in life is obviously due to a superposition of past choices and actions. However, a focus only on the past suggests that any success in life would be due to blind luck of birth and that even further back, it is the blind luck of creation that would determine a destiny of any success in life. This classical and determinate notion of fate or karma presumes free will is an illusion because it is only the superposition of the past that determines all choice for any action. Of course, the chaos of noise does still limit the precision of measuring action and so even a determinate future can still be difficult to predict with certainty.

A person's success in life, though, is not just due to a superposition of past choices and action, but that success is also due to choices from a large number of possible futures as well. What makes up a person's success or any action is then a superposition of both the past and the future possibilities and so any particular future is not then determined only by blind luck or birth or creation. We choose a future by the action of free will and the entanglement of free will is not an illusion of the chaos of classical noise. Instead the action of free will emerges from the noise of quantum phase entanglement.

Quantum phase noise entangles the futures of a source and observer in ways that an observer cannot know. Therefore, quantum phase noise has no classical or determinate meaning since entanglement means that there are quantum actions that have no knowable cause. The entanglement of source and observer phase does decay over time and that decay or decoherence changes both source and observer in ways that are not knowable to the observer.

Another example of the decay of quantum phase noise is for thousands of rotating neutron stars known as millisecond pulsars. This figure shows that the average decays of several thousand millisecond pulsars decay the same as the IPK.


Yet another example is the average decay of earth's spin as shown below. Although there are many classical and chaotic actions that effect earth's spin, it is interesting that the earth's spin decay seems to be at least in part consistent with the decay of the IPK as well as the decay of the millisecond pulsars. From 1971 to 2015, there have been 25 leap seconds over these 44 years, which is 0.18 ppb/yr, which is very close to the quantum phase decay of 0.255 ppb/yr as the figure shows.


Although ocean tidal friction is often assigned to this value, tidal energy seems to be only 1.7% of the earth spin energy decay. Given an ocean surface area of 3.6e14 m2 and a mean tide height of 0.6 m, the tidal energy is 2.5e15 J/day for two tides.

In fact, there seem to be any number of measurements consistent with the quantum phase decay, which also comes with a complementary universal force growth. In fact, in order to be consistent with the Hubble galaxy red shift, force must increase with decreasing mass in this epoch of the universe.