Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Augmenting Cartesian Space with Aethertime

Space is an infinitely divisible empty void that makes up most of the universe according to common understanding. In other words, space is nothing and we do not sense space and it is only the something of objects that we do sense as part of our outer lives. We sense objects and their backgrounds with different time delays and from the difference in those object time delays emerges the nothing of empty voids of time and space between those objects. Although discrete sensations of objects continuously bombard us, we all believe very fervently that a continuum of time and empty space exists as a container for objects. Even though we do not sense space, we are never without sensation of objects of our outer lives. We sense objects from a continuum of discrete sensations at different time delays or perspectives and those time delays involve various sensations and from those discrete neural sensations emerge the singular nothing of space; we simply believe a singular space exists because that is the way the we believe the universe of our outer life is.

Although the notions of space and motion are very useful for making sense out of our reality and predicting action, continuous space and motion do have their limitations, both at very large and very small scales. Space and motion are also very different between macroscopic general relativity and microscopic quantum action and that difference is a source of endless confusion. There is a more primitive reality of discrete matter and time delay from which continuous space and motion emerge and for very large and very small scales, this primitive reality closes the universe.

The figure below shows how the three orders of consciousness represent our perception of the universe. Our first order Cartesian reality represents objects outside of our mind in our outer life on trajectories in an otherwise empty void of space. This is how we view most of reality and that first order consciousness has been very successful for life in general. Gravity is the main force acting in our outer lives and the outer life is called objective or things in and of themselves or Descartes body or Kant’s phenomenon and this is how the inner life of our brains work. We learn a Cartesian consciousness of an outer life even before we learn to speak and simply come to believe with an inner life the outer life just as it is.

The second order is a relational reality in which objects are made up of pieces and parts held together by all of gravity, charge, strong force, weak force, and even the very weak bonds of neural synapses. Our second order reality represents the world of ideas or subjects inside of our mind and of discrete sensation that never stops. We learn these more elaborate stories about how the world works mainly in school, but also on our own and from our parents and friends. This more precise view of reality helps us be part of the cooperative civilization that we now are part of. Although gravity force still determines much of action, it is the amplitude and phase of charge force that is really what holds microscopic matter together.

This relational order is what is called our subjective reality of our inner life where each person has a separate and unique experience with objects as ideas. A relational inner life is Descartes’ mind or Kant’s noumenon and is how reason works. With the reason of our inner lives, we can imagine many more possible futures in the superposition states of the aware matter of our minds. Our minds interact with other aware matter and form bonds and conflicts through sensation and the resultant cooperation and conflicts among people allows us to reach futures that other sentients cannot even imagine.

There is a further spectral order of consciousness, which is a level of consciousness that most people do not experience. With spectral order a matter spectrum represents each object as amplitudes of matter just like a time spectrum represents each object as a pulse of matter in time. The peaks in a matter spectrum are amplitudes with either plus or minus phase and represent all of the interactions or relations of all of the pieces of matter that make up that object's matter spectrum. Thus even the EEG spectrum of neural aware matter represents all of the bonds and conflicts of aware matter in the brain, now as a power spectrum of consciousness. There is also a great deal of phase information embedded in neural aware matter, but the typical EEG does not measure the phase information of neural aware.

Our reality is determined by a continuum of never ending discrete sensations and the actions of sensation always involve the norms or squares of amplitude. Although neural phase coherence does affect our reality, we mainly see those effects with light and electricity. We do not normally sense phase as distinct from the intensity of matter objects and their time delays. Thus spectral consciousness is a level of awareness that is beyond just the typical Cartesian and relational realities that we experience every day.

Although the notions of space and motion are extremely useful in many contexts, space and motion often confuse our notions of matter and time and that confusion has thus far precluded any unification of gravity and charge forces for mainstream science. In order to unify forces, science must first resolve the confusion of space and time by realizing the limits of space and motion. By setting aside the more intuitive conjugates of space and momentum that are such an integral part of our Cartesian and relational consciousness, science might then use our more primitive spectral reality.

In order to build a quantum reality, science must first recognize the limits of space and motion compared with the alternative conjugates of matter and time for the same quantum reality. The conjugates of matter and time nicely unite gravity and charge forces by aligning the concept of a two dimensional time between gravity and charge as a unified quantum force. The notions of space and motion then emerge from the actions of matter in time and we see space for what it is; a convenient white board for keeping track of objects and action.

In fact, it is ironic that we seem to be more certain about the existence of the absolute nothingness of space as an empty object than we are certain of any object that we actually do perceive. After all, it is certainly true that there is something that separates objects from each other in time. So it is quite natural to conclude that there are large amounts of the absolutely static nothing in between objects within the infinitely divisible void of static space.

Even when we sense an object, it is not always apparent whether or not that object actually exists. Our senses are bombarded with a continuum of light, sound, touch, smell, and taste and our minds use only a small fraction of that sensation to represent an object. The object could still be an illusion or it could be a mirror reflection or it could be a picture of an object or even a hologram projection of an object. And yet even though we do not see or sense the nothing that is space, we always sense the something of objects and we invariably conclude that the different time delays of objects means that an empty void exists between objects that we call space. However, there is never an absence of object sensation in the continuum of experience even while we never sense space.

Continuous time is then primal belief that we have as part of the foundation for understanding the universe and it appears that the empty void of an infinitely divisible space as well as motion in space both emerge from the actions of matter. That is, the infinitely divisible nothing in which we all fervently and intuitively believe, really just emerges from a simpler primitive reality of just matter and time.

It should not be too surprising that the three dimensions of Cartesian space and motion emerge from a simpler primitive spectral reality. After all, a belief in space as an infinitely divisible void of nothing is a kind of oxymoron. To believe in the existence of an object like a tree is one thing; but to believe in the existence of the nothing of empty space is quite another thing…literally a belief in nothing as something. We sense objects at different time delays or perspectives and suppose therefore that space exists as a nothing that is what separates those objects. But what then fills space? There was a persistent belief up until the last century that an aether filled space and so gravity and charge forces transmitted by means of aether.

However, once mainstream science became comfortable with the magic of action at a distance for the force fields of gravity and charge in an absolute vacuum, the possibility of the aether of Newton faded into the uncertainty of time.

So why do we continue to believe so fervently in something that is really nothing at all? Space and motion emerge proportional to time and matter to order our reality and we effortlessly sense the motion of objects and actions through the empty spaces outside of our minds. This is the Cartesian reality of the Figure. We imagine those objects on various time trajectories in this object of space even though we never sense the space between objects. Rather we sense objects and their motion at different time delays and from different perspectives emerges the empty void of space to separate objects from each other. Empty space then seems to provide a way for those objects to move about.

In fact, it is time delay and matter change and action that separates objects, not really space. In other words, space and motion emerge from a continuum of matter and action that fills all time and it is rather the conjugates of time and matter that are the true axioms of a primitive quantum action. When we imagine action, we first begin with empty space and then imagine an object moving in that empty space and so time simply becomes equivalent to motion in space.

If instead we first imagine time delay as a primal dimension, object matter changes by exchange of matter with us and other objects in order to bond and conflict in a never ending continuum of sensation that involves exchanges of matter. Our minds extract certain changes in the matter of objects over time as action from which emerges our notion of object motion through Cartesian space. Just like science often uses time as a distance in measuring the cosmos, we also use time delay in many common descriptions of distances on earth.

And yet we continue to believe very fervently in the empty void of a continuum of space that defines the time delays of our journeys in life. If time is a primal dimension that truly separates objects, then it certainly also seems reasonable to suppose that Cartesian space and motion simply emerge from time delays and matter change. All of the spatial dimensions of forwards and backwards, left and right, up and down, seem so intuitive that we forget how complex and difficult it was as children to learn a Cartesian consciousness.

We fully realize that as children we learn to speak and understand language, a likewise difficult and complex skill, but we do not seem to realize that we must first learn about objects and motion well before language would even make sense. We and other objects move so effortlessly through the emptiness of space that existence seems impossible without both an empty and continuous space and time and mainstream science calls its paradigm spacetime for this very reason.

There does not seem to be any science or any Western philosophy that supposes space emerges from the changes of objects in time embedded within a continuum of sensation over time. There is, however, much Eastern thought that teaches about the illusion of reality and it does turn out that our notions of Cartesian space do end up distorting and therefore limiting our understanding of the true primitive natures of the axioms of time and matter.

Instead of recognizing time as a distance that is always connected to a determined future, there is also a second time dimension. In fact, the past is not really a part of time and the past is only the fossil memories and objects that we use to predict the future. Although we think of time as a continuous single dimension with a past, present, and future, this makes time just another dimension of Cartesian space.

Eastern philosophy does reveal the illusion of our sensory reality and Hindu Vedic beliefs emphasize the illusion of reality, the Maya. It is only with a lifetime of ritualistic meditation that one can ever hope to understand this illusion. Buddhism likewise teaches that sensation misleads us about reality and it is only by a highly prescribed ritual meditation that we can hope to understand the illusion of reality. It is only by quieting the maelstrom of the aware matter of our mind that we lose self and thereby achieve a better understanding of the world. However, we can never really step out of the continuum of sensation over time since we are embedded into the universe.

A much more straightforward explanation for these intuitive notions of an illusory reality is that Cartesian space and object motion through space emerges from a simpler reality. Space and motion emerge from the time delays and exchanges of matter among objects, which is the action of matter time that is our primitive reality. The neural packets of aware matter that make up conscious thought come from the mimes of sensation. Mimes are the brain matter structures that mime or replicate the sensation of an object and then allow us to make sense out of sensation. The irony of reality is that our consciousness is really also just matter changes in time and so in a very real sense, space and consciousness both emerge from the primitive characteristics of time delay and matter in our brain.

A finite line in Cartesian space nevertheless has an infinity of points and we associate similar infinities of points with all space and time. On a line, there is a current position as a point as well as preceding and following points and time then emerges as a similar line that has a present that connects past and future. In contrast, a Cartesian line that emerges from time delay is not infinitely divisible but instead is made up of moments since time delays are moments. A series of moments would be a memory of the past, but there is no action to replay this memory and the past is not therefore part of time’s dimension. We imagine a set of future moments as possibilities and so the present is a moment of memory and action while the past is only memory stored as brain matter, a fossil of the past. There is not just one determined future since the present moment is only one of many possible futures, but our sensations represent a continuum of discrete moments of time.

Neither a straight Cartesian line nor even a single connected line emerges from time delays. We can predict the future perfectly well with only the time delays and changes of matter in time, which is action and we do not really need the a priori notion of motion in Cartesian space. However, Cartesian space and motion are still extremely useful and only misleading for predicting action at very large or very small scales.

So a mathematical representation of a quantum reality can predict action equally well with the conjugates of space and motion or with matter changes and time. In fact, our minds fill in most of what we perceive as motion in Cartesian space from just a few sensations that we extract from the continuum over time and that is the reason that a quantum reality without space and motion is therefore difficult to imagine. The very powerful Cartesian notion that evolution has given our minds simplifies the complex time-ordered continuum of sensations of matter changes for objects in time that our minds process. The mimes of sensation then result in our feelings about objects in our primitive minds and those feelings result in both conscious and unconscious actions.

It is important that there are two dimensions for time and not just one; a moment of atomic action and the decay of those moments as memory or intrinsic decay. What we think of as past is just a memory of action as experience and not a dimension of time, so time is not just a memory and yet our past is only such a decaying fossil memory of action. Time is always both a decay along with an action and since we cannot journey into a past memory, it does not make any sense to journey to a past event.

Unlike a return journey in Cartesian space, the past is merely a fossil memory of actions, nothing more and nothing less, even though memory is an intrinsic part of time along with action. As we approach an object, the time distance we journey is the memory of our stride or the turns of a wheel or the clicks of an odometer as well as the action of our stride, wheel turns, or odometer clicks.

Matter changes are a part of what time is and those matter changes can be our own memory or they can be the hands of a clock or the sand of an hourglass or the geological layers of sedimentary rock or the spin the earth or the pulsar timekeepers of the cosmos. The memory of time can also be in the calendar of the year, in the relics of civilizations, or in the fossil record of life. The matter changes that we call the past are different from the action and memory that we call the present and that is different from the superposition of possible futures and so time is not a linear dimension as past, present, and future.

What we call past and present are both simply a part of the time dimension as memories of events, either our own memories of the fossil record of action of a clock or calendar. What we call the present is then the two dimensions of decay and action, which is what time actually is. What we call the future are the many possibilities of action that we imagine and there is not a determinate future.

A principle in science known as the microscopic reversibility of time seems to show that time is reversible. At a microscopic scale, the scientist/philosopher Poincaré supposed that the collisions of atoms or subatomic particles in space are completely symmetric in space and time and therefore completely reversible. In fact, Poincaré showed mathematically that there is therefore a finite probability that any configuration of particles will exactly repeat itself over time.

In the quantum atomic world, there is also a strong principle of time reversal symmetry, but that is simply a characteristic of one time dimension, atomic time, and the principle does not consider the universe decay time as a second time dimension. Once science recognizes that we live in a universe with a second time dimension as matter decay, matter decay introduces a very slight asymmetry in time as well as determining the nature of all force. Thus, even at the microscopic level, matter exchange among objects and therefore also matter action has the well-defined time arrow of matter decay.

Even at the subatomic scale, time is only a memory of action even as Cartesian distance emerges from the time between sensations of objects. The emergence of Cartesian space simplifies the complexity of the continuum of time-ordered sensation and helps us do what we really need to do…predict action. What we really need to do with sensation is predict what is likely out of all the possible futures to where we might journey by our chosen actions. In fact, consciousness itself is really just another representation of time since consciousness is our memory of the actions that are the neural impulses of our minds’ aware matter.

We imagine futures with our minds and then select a desirable future based on the singular feeling of our primitive minds and choose actions to journey to those futures. We never actually reach the exact future that we imagine, both because of the imprecision and uncertainty of action but also because of the imprecision and uncertainty of feeling. During a journey, our feelings evolve, others’ feelings evolve, and the world around us evolves. By the time we reach the future that we desired, the world has changed and along with it, our feelings and the future we imagined have also changed.

The mathematics of science called quantum mechanics can predict action with just the representation of matter, time, and phase. Quantum mechanics and its wavefunctions only depend on a conjugate pair of operators and those operators do not have to be the typical choices of Cartesian space and momentum. In fact, avoiding the empty void of space resolves many quantum conundrums, and that includes the conundrum of quantum gravity.

Coherent quantum states can persist across the time of the universe and coherence is a common feature of quantum action that results in something known as entanglement. But Cartesian space and motion do not permit the coherence of two events across the universe since coherence seems to imply coincidence and instantaneous action by the strictures of relativity.

Our intuition demands that, with increasing separation of an empty void of space between objects, objects become increasingly independent of each other. All effects by this logic must have local causes by local objects and therefore causes and effects are always limited by the speed of light in space. But quantum coherency seems to violate a local causal principle since quantum states can be instantaneously coherent across the universe. Yet this quantum coherence of states is always tied to a single common source and therefore a single local cause. Therefore the fact of coherence with a source is indeed limited by the speed of light in space.

It is the emergence of Cartesian space from matter time that intrudes into our interpretation of motion through space as time and velocity. What about the speed of light? The speed of light actually emerges from the decay rate of the universe matter in this epoch and the radius of the hydrogen atom. We project a gaekron action of time as the void of Cartesian space and the speed of light in this epoch then emerges from the three constants of matter time.

Universal matter, matter exchange, and decay are the sources of all time and gaekron decays more or less uniformly throughout the universe. So gaekron matter and decay together also define space while the objects of observable matter are gaekron matter condensates that are only a portion of the basic gaekron matter of the universe.

The presence of coherent matter across the universe is not just an anomaly of microscopic quantum mechanics, in matter time coherency and interference are causal features of all reality. Every time we observe an object, what we sense is still just one of many possible futures for that object. From a whole series of sensations, we deduce the reality of that object and are then usually very good at predicting the future of an object’s action. Once we sense an object reality, the other possible futures decay away very quickly, even if those possibilities existed on the other side of the universe.

However, we are not always correct about the reality of an object and we can be mistaken. But our very survival often depends on how well we predict object action, so that survival naturally favors a consciousness that better predicts action. Now those objects can be inanimate like cars and houses or they can be people or animals or they can be galaxies or galaxy clusters.

The existence of coherent states across the universe is linked to a coherence of matter amplitude phase, not matter intensity or proper time. In other words, coherent matter amplitudes can evolve as two or more different possibilities from the same precursor source event. The time distances as well as the matter amplitudes between those two possibilities differ only in phase coherence and as long as there is phase coherence, the fates are linked. Normally we do not think of phase as a causal agent, but there are any number of phase effects that exceed the speed of light, so-called superluminality.

Phase coherence can occur over what emerges as a very great Cartesian distance, but those coherent states are linked by the same time distance from a common precursor source event. Thus the time distance to the precursor event necessarily limits to the speed of light any communication of phase by either observer. Even though we imagine that a particle observed on path A instantaneously precludes its observation on path B, that is only one of many possible futures for that particle.

Observer A can not know of any other possibilities without more knowledge and that extra knowledge is necessarily limited by the time action of light from the source. If an observer sees a particle on path A, it is reasonable to assume that that particle was always on a journey from the event along path A. But since it is equally likely that another observer on path B will see the same particle and if that event occurs, the particle will not then appear on path A.

What gives? Which path was the particle on? How can a single particle seem to be simultaneously on both Cartesian paths A and B? Furthermore, observation of the particle on path A seems to instantaneously preclude its observation on path B. How can this cause be instantaneous? This piecemeal reality appears to spread the possibilities of a particle over the wide expanse of the cosmos.

Instead of the speed of light in space, time action is limited by the matter decay rate of the universe. Since all force is due to the exchange and decay of gaekron, all action in the universe is in some sense always coherent with all other action and always limited by that universe decay rate. The appearance of an object simply means that there is constructive interference of gaekron in time while the absence of an object in time means that there is destructive interference of matter, which is what we call space and is the absence of matter in the time between the objects. The absence of objects is due to destructive interference and simply represents dephasing of gaekron matter.

However, gaekron matter does not fill space, but rather space emerges as a convenient and simple representation in our minds for both gaekron matter and its changes in objects over time. Space and motion emerge from the actual complexity of sensation and action in time. The time between sensations is what separates objects and an object matter spectrum shows its relations with all other objects and so the matter spectrum is a complementary representation of an object in matter time.

It is obvious that most of the universe is made up of empty space and that most of an object is also made up of empty space since there is space between atoms of any solid object and there is even more space between electrons and nuclei and then even more space between quarks in the nucleon. But, once again, the Cartesian space within an object emerges from the changes in its matter spectrum over time. One might also say that all of objects and the universe are just different peaks in a gaekron matter spectrum, but that statement would not be very useful either.

The objects of matter exist as gaekron in various time and phase amplitudes according to quantum mechanics. More than one possible realization of an object in very different Cartesian locations may emerge from its matter spectrum. All of these possible futures for an object in time do exist with very different phases and while it seems to our Cartesian logic that action has only local causes, it is rather the case that quantum logic determines causality as the evolution of a matter spectrum.

We imagine ourselves in a frame of reference at rest and further imagine light from a source traveling away from us at the speed of light. If instead we imagine that light source creating stationary photons and moving away, it would rather be us and our comoving frame traveling away from the particular photons that we have emitted given the collapse of that world line.

Certainly it is much simpler to imagine with our Cartesian logic that incoherent photons emit and move in all directions away from a stationary source. But the universe collapses in all directions and from all points into itself and it is the rate of that collapse that determines all force.

Phase is a dimension of matter time that is very common for light but not otherwise explicitly incorporated into the everyday reality of other objects. We are made up of matter that has amplitude as well as phase but sensation is the result of the norm of matter waves and does not include phase. Similar to polarized light, the polarization of matter can contribute to a confusion of causation, but only in very controlled experiments. Polarizing a single light photon along one axis at 0° means that that photon will not pass through an analyzer oriented at 90° and these two devices will not transmit the polarized photon. However, inserting third polarizer at 45° in between the polarizer and analyzer allows that single photon to now pass 50% of the time because the 45° analyzer creates two possible polarization states from that one polarized photon.

Thus even though we imagine a single polarized photon along one axis, a single photon always exists in a superposition of two polarization states. A linearly polarized photon is really a superposition of right and left circularly polarizations even while a right circularly polarized photon is a superposition of linearly polarizations phase shifted by ¼ of a wavelength. In fact, a single photon actually has in general an elliptical polarization because the two possible polarizations can be related to each other by an arbitrary phase angle.

The third polarizer inserted at 45° distributed that single photon polarization between the two orthogonal Cartesian directions, not just one. The phase coherence of a single photon between two Cartesian axes is straightforward to calculate, but difficult to imagine. We want a photon to be polarized in only one way, but then we find out that that one photon always exists as a superposition of two circularly polarized states at different phase angles, one of which we observe as a linear polarization.

Ancient people drew pictures of the realities they saw and those pictures seem to us rather flat images with odd perspectives. Classic Egyptian art, for example, shows people and animals without perspective and with profiles that are not what our cameras of today project. Ancient pictures showed a great variety of object projections onto flat images until the realism of painted images and camera photography in the renaissance. We take for granted the camera-like projections of objects onto flat surfaces, but those projections are actually not what we sense. The imagery of our art tracks the evolution of our civilization and of consciousness itself.

Surrealist and impressionist artists have shown over the last one hundred years or so how we can perceive objects in many ways that contrast with a camera image. Artists often produce images that are manifestations of a projective Cartesian reality. In fact, such art often shows a combination of the two different representations for reality, Cartesian and relational, and we use both of these representations to predict action. Whether we project an object as a Cartesian camera flat image or we project the relations between objects onto a flat image as a relational representation, both projections represent objects for us.

A relational camera would take a very different snapshot of reality. Instead of recording the light intensity projected as an image on a flat surface, a relational spectrum would record the interaction or relational intensities among the objects of a scene onto the same surface. A relational spectrum shows interactions and therefore also shows the many possible futures of objects in a scene as opposed to their static Cartesian projections of that captured moment. That is, the strength of all of the charge and gravitational bonds would mean that matter objects would look like x-ray images, but with gravitational bonding at 1e39th less intensity than charge bonding.

Cartesian projections tend to be image frames that capture a moment of a time-like representation of a scene and so that is why our projection of space is time-like. Relational spectra, on the other hand, tend to be matter-like and action-like and capture the matter relations among objects. A relational spectrum shows the way an object interacts with other objects at a moment, but does not capture the Cartesian distances among objects very well.

If two people have a relationship, that relationship is a bond that represents a peak in each of their relational spectra just as the gravity that bonds each of them to earth as well as all of the charge bonds are also peaks. Just as charge bonds the charges of atoms, molecules, proteins, and lipids of their body’s cells together, the neural bonds of consciousness hold their realities together; their relationships with all the objects around them are also peaks in their relational spectra.

We tell word stories about the relationships that we have with each other and with other objects and these word stories are more like a relational spectrum than just a Cartesian image. As opposed to a photograph of moment, a word story describes the relational spectrum that complements that moment of a Cartesian representation of object time relationships.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Deflection of Starlight by the Sun

The first verification of Einstein’s relativity came with the observation by Eddington during an eclipse in 1919 of starlight deflection passing close to the sun. Einstein had predicted in 1915 that the sun's gravity would deflect star light, but it actually took many more years to really put this issue to bed. This is because there are two separate but equal terms for that deflection and it even took Einstein time to realize that this was so.

The first term is due to the mass-energy equivalence (MEE) of photon energy and is really then just the Newton deviation of classical gravity of an object trajectory close to a massive body is shown in Fig. 1 and is based on just gravity and mass equivalent momentum. In other words, there is both a classical Newtonian deflection of star light as well as relativity's deflection of light by gravity. The real question is why relativity predicts twice the deflection as predicted based solely on Newton's gravity, but including the mass equivalent energy of light.

And of course, since the energy of a photon is equivalent to a rest mass, this is the Newton deviation for a photon particle as mass or momentum as well. These units are all in radians, Eqs. 1 and 2, where 2π radians equals 360°, [1], [2].

For relativity, though, there is an additional deflection due to the gravity time delay and spatial distortion and a progressive gravitational redshift of light. That is, the deflection of light due to an extra gravity time delay exactly doubles the deflection due to gravity as MEE, Eq. 3.

The fact that these two effects, gravity MEE and time delay, are equivalent but distinct was not immediately apparent to Einstein and others in 1915, but eventually Einstein recognized that his relativistic deflection was indeed twice the Newton gravity deflection for light in a vacuum. So the total deflection is the sum of both Newton and redshift contributions as Eq. 4:

The original Eddington results from 1919 showed a deflection of the starlight by the sun, but those results had a fairly large uncertainty as shown in Fig. 2 and so really did not validate Einstein's Eq. 4 over Newton's Eq. 2. Since then, many different kinds of measurements have indeed verified the extra gravity deflection of light predicted by Einstein. Figure 2 shows starlight deflection data from the 1976 eclipse along with the Einstein and Newton predictions along with the range of data from Eddington in 1919. Although there is substantial scatter in the measured deflections, this paper confirmed Einstein’s prediction over Newton's with a 95% CI.

The much more precise time delays of quasar sources across the sky by VLBI radiotelescopes measures time delays between stations across the width of the earth, ~6,000 miles, to derive the same light deflection for these radiowave quasars. A more generic expression that is valid for objects across the entire sky is Eq. 5 as

where the angle, theta, is the elongation angle between the sun and the source and g = 1 for GR and g = 0 for Newton.

Travel through a gravity gradient in effect delays both photons of light as well as bodies of matter and from the precise measurement of that time delay emerges the deflection of light in space. The measurement of starlight deflections during a 1976 solar eclipse shows a dataset that is consistent with Einstein gamma = 1 and not just Newton gamma = 0. However, the scatter in the starlight deflection data in Fig. 2 shows how difficult this measurement really is.

Figure 2 also shows the three of the five much more precise VLBI results reported in a 2015 paper for a series of VLBI measurements of quasar time delays from 1991-2001 that also followed the expectations of Einstein’s relativity and gamma = 2. Unlike the measurements that depend on an eclipse, measured VLBI time delays occur throughout the year and over ten years and showed circular paths for each of five different quasar radio source deflections. One example is the blazar 1606+106 deflections in Figs. 3 and 4.

This data revealed very precise measurements of the deflection of quasar radio signals over the course of ten years for quasars that were located at the minimum angle 30.9° from the sun, a much greater elongation angle than any previous report. Once again, these datasets support the deflection predicted by Einstein’s relativity and gamma = 1 over that of the mass-energy equivalence of light and gamma = 0.

Instead of measuring starlight deflection only during an eclipse, the VLBI measures radio source deflection over an entire year for all of ten years. Each quasar radio source reveals a circular pattern that shows the same deflection observed with the eclipse datasets. Figures 3 and 4 show the deflections of blazar 1606+106 that is located 31° or 124 solar radii from the ecliptic and would be the elongation at the maximum deflection.

The much more precise VLBI data is also consistent with the nature of relativity to an extent that seems quite convincing. However, there are still other explanations besides Einstein’s relativity for the deflections of starlight and radio sources that are fully consistent with these measurements. These results all derive from approximations that use only the leading terms of various series expansions to simplify the complex tensor algebra of the relativistic equations. As a result, these same approximations are actually valid for any number of alternative scenarios as long as they all incorporate the same basic principle of mass-energy equivalence (MEE), i.e., E = mc2

There are some big flaws in Einstein’s general relativity, but starlight deflection by gravity is not one of them. In fact, far from validating GR, starlight deflection is consistent with any number of other theories as long as those theories incorporate gravity MEE and therefore time delay. For example, MEE is a founding principle of discrete aether and so star light deflection by the sun is not so much of a verification of GR as it is of gravity MEE and time delay.

A spherical gradient index lens, for example, deflects starlight in the same way as a gravity body like the sun. For a gravity lens, the starlight first redshifts in its approach and then blueshifts as it leaves the gravity field deflected as shown in Figs. 1 and 5. Similarly, for a gradient index lens, the starlight redshifts and delays as it travels the index gradient and then starlight blueshifts as leaves the index gradient. Similarly, a body of mass accelerates and gains energy upon entering a gravity gradient, then decelerates and loses energy and is also delayed upon traveling the same gravity gradient, but only one-half as much delay as the starlight.

The dielectric effect delays light that travels through a dielectric medium since light slows down in a medium with an index of refraction greater than vacuum. In a fully consistent manner, a gravity field slows light and therefore results in the same index gradient, which is an alternative explanation from relativity. Whereas Einstein supposed a distorted 4D spacetime where light followed geodesic paths (shown in Fig. 5), light does not change velocity along that spacetime geodesic. Instead, a gravity field dilates time and space by the same Lorentz factor in a gravity field, which maintains a constant speed of light in the moving frame.

In the moving frame, there is no change in the speed of light because both distance and time are dilated by the same MEE factor and so in GR, there is no way for the traveler to know about their motion without communication with the rest frame. However, in the rest frame, the deflection and delay of light in the moving frame is very apparent. The apparent speed of light for the photon does in fact slow down since there is a time delay just as there is a time delay for the matter body as well.

A positive gradient quadrupole gravity wave, shown in Fig. 5, is due to the exchange of image dipoles with the photon dipole and this is a dielectric effect. In effect, the photon travels through the gravity quadrupole field and that same quadrupole gravity field exchanges dipole pairs between the two matter object. It is the exchange of quadrupole photons that results in an increase in that object’s inertial mass and velocity.

A quadrupole gravity exchange with a photon of light results in an apparent red shift or mass loss followed by blue shift and mass gain and an overall photon delay even while the same quadrupole gravity exchange with a matter object first increases the decreases object mass and ends up with only one half of the time delay that a photon experiences.

A photon in a dielectric gradient generates an image dipole that results in an attractive force and a red shift of its frequency. In effect, the quadrupole gravity field derives from photon emissions of matter particles that end up folding back onto the particles with the folding time of the universe. The time quadrupole operator, Fig. 6, is the basic scaling for gravity force from dipole time operator of charge force.

Quadrupole photon gravity is a quantum gravity and is a part of matter time, where all force derives from the same fundamental decay of the universe. Photon delay in a gravity field is twice the delay of an MEE matter object due to the fact that a photon undergoes an additional dielectric delay that is equivalent to its MEE delay.

It is from these time delays that our notion of space emerges from the action of matter. Therefore, the fundamental flaw in Einstein's GR is that a deterministic geodesic path like Fig. 5 exists. Although this is an excellent approximation, that path in a quantum gravity actually emerges from the exchange of biphotons. Similar to the exchange of virtual photon dipoles that represents the basic nature of quantum charge, it is the exchange of virtual biphoton quadrupoles that represents the basic nature of quantum gravity.

The factor of two for relativity's delay of light is actually the same factor of two that shows up in the gyromagnetic precession frequency between relativity and classical frequencies of rotating charge. This means that the g-factor that relates quantum to classical charge is the same g-factor that relates quantum and classical gravity, finally resolve the discrepancies between gravity and charge.

Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1919). “The Total Eclipse of 1919 May 29 and the Influence of Gravitation on Light.” The Observatory 42, 119-122.