Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Pulsar Spin Down

Pulsars are the wonderful gifts or time and are the clocks of our galaxy and really of our universe. Many stars just like our sun reach their destinys as rotating pulsars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars. These rotating bodies show us the way of our destiny as well as the way of our past.

Pulsar rotation is highly periodic, but because they are every dense, pulsars have very unusual properties as well much like the property of spin of the atomic nucleus. In contrast to the nuclear spin, pulsars radiate energy from their poles and it is the precession of those energy beacons that shines much like the rotating lighthouse of maritime lore. Each time a pulsar pole happens to point to earth, we measure a pulse of that pulsar and these pulses vary from periods of several seconds to several thousandths of a second, milliseconds.

The pulsars not only tick at very regular rates, pulsars also decay at very regular rates. Some pulsars actually increase in tick rate, but the vast majority of pulsar rates decay over time. This decay rate conforms to the classical αdot = 0.255 ppb/yr decay of matter time as shown by the red dash line in the figures below. This classical decay is proportional to the ratio of gravity and the square of charge and so is the unification of gravity and charge in matter time.

Millisecond pulsars are especially accurate timepieces and their trend in the plots below show an average decay that is very similar to the classical decay, and while this could be just a coincidence, it it perfectly consistent with a shrinking universe. Also maybe coincidentally, the measured earth spin down, earth moon orbit decay, and Milky way/Andromeda separation rates happen to fall on this same line...


The larger plot below shows where the hydrogen atom and electron spin frequencies lie on the spin down line...oh, and the earth-moon orbital decay is also well known. Note that orbital decay means frequency decay and that means the orbit increases in distance in order for the period to decrease. The classical electron spin velocity, c/α, defines a period for the electron spin and the matter decay, mdot, defines the slope of the decay line. These are the two axioms that drive all gravity and charge forces.

As you can see, both c/α and mdot are simply restatements of constants of science and not new parameters. The only new parameter here is that third axiom, m¥, the mass of the smallest particle, the gaechron. The ratio m¥ / me scales gravity to charge force, but does not show up on this plot since that is the period of the universe matter pulse, 27 Byr, of which we are 3.4 Byr into that matter pulse. However, the Andromeda-Milky Way galaxies separation decays at 0.267 ppb/yr, very close to the universe decay rate.


Now added is the Allan deviation noise curves for the 171Yb/87Sr lattice clock ratio. Once the ratio noise is coincident with the universal decay constant, that is to what the clock ratio converges.

Quasar Numbers and Luminosities

This plot shows 46,000 some odd quasars from the SDSS J dataset in terms of numbers per 250 Myrs as well as luminosity in terms of equivalent sun masses turned into energy. Note that while the quasar number densities peak at 10.25 Byrs, the luminosity keeps going up to one sun mass equivalent energy per year. The time scale assumes a Hubble constant H = 74 km/s/Mpc.


And of course, the matter time universe scales differently and below is the matter time equivalent plot. The matter time universe is 3.4 Byrs proper time and quasar luminosity scales much differently in an expanding force and decaying matter universe as opposed to the space and time expansion of the big bang (actually just by1/gamma^2). 

Thus the luminosity of quasars in the early epoch now is very similar to  galaxy luminosity in the current epoch, which is due to starlight and not the SMBH. The H = -288 km/s/Mpc, and of course, the Hubble constant is negative for decay and begins at the edge of the universe shrinking inward, just like one might expect for a gravitational universe.


There is also some great work with the number density and luminosities of all galaxies, Nature 469 504–507 (27 January 2011) doi:10.1038/nature09717. Here is a plot of luminosity of all galaxies as well as quasars as a function of Hubble time for the space time expanding universe.



and here is the corresponding plot for the matter time collapsing universe.

Runiverse = 2401 Mpc, 201 billion galaxies at 3.5 Mpc-3. The luminosity uv is the SDSS uv band while sfr is the star forming rate derived from cited models along with the constant galaxy density of 3.5 Mpc-3 shown below. Since there are 54 galaxies in our local group and diameter of 3.1 Mpc, there is 3.5 galaxies per Mpc3. 

Here is a plot of the local galaxy number density from PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 55, 757-770, 2003 August 25, http://pasj.asj.or.jp/v55/n4/550406/node4.html. There are 500,000 galaxies within z=2 in SDSS-10.

Here is the plot that shows it all. The galaxy number density is constant at 3.5 Mpc-3, but in a collapsing universe, the space-time metric evolves and the galaxy number density versus time is more like a quadratic function.

It appears that quasar number densities are on the order of 0.47% of galaxy numbers in a collapsing universe. This result is really crazy. What it means is that time lensing of the past affects how we interpret our universe.

The idea of a quasar as a composite of a boson star and an eternally collapsing object is very appealing. In this case, the event horizon represents a phase transition between a time-like fermionic matter, i.e. the ordinary matter of our universe, and the boson matter-like time of a boson star. Matter time does seem to provide a coupling between the fermions of a rotating accretion disk and the bosons of a rotating boson star.

This entity will accrete fermions into the event horizon, undergo phase transition to bosons and emit the balance of the fermions as light at the jets of the quasar.


It is very likely that thermodynamics will provide a useful way to handle this phase transition from two such different states of matter. In fact, there may be something quite similar going on at the centers of large neutron stars.