**Abstract**

Although continuous space and time seem to be fundamental to our
universe along with matter and action, space
and time actually emerge from the fundamental discrete actions of aether. The universe of discrete quantum aethe turns inside out space and time since quantum decoherence
now drives the emergence of space and time.

**Discrete Action of Discrete Aether**

Discrete aether and
action are the fundamental two dimensions from which all other dimensions
of the shrinking universe of expanding force then emerge. Although typical source observers use the
continuous time and space of an expanding universe to keep track of source
actions, enlightened source observers keep track of sources instead with the
discrete action of discrete aether. Both time and space then emerge as
collections of source actions of a shrinking universe and the term aether
refers to the actual fundamental particle of all matter and light. This discrete
aether is what actually makes up the universe, not really space and time. For
example, atomic clock actions define time with discrete action and observers
then simply believe that an infinitely divisible time has meaning in between
the actions of a collection. Thus it is the belief that continuous time exists
outside of the discrete actions of discrete atomic action that then define time
and observers who believe in continuous time then interpolate between those discrete
events to infer a continuous time.

It is the
collection of discrete wavelengths of light that define space from the discrete
actions of that light. Observers have to first of all simply believe in the
existences of both matter and action and most observers then further believe in
the infinitely divisible space between discrete events to keep track of matter
sources even though it is from discrete events that the notions of continuous
space and time emerge. Ultimately then it is the discrete diameters of atomic
charge radii and their spin periods that actually define discrete space and
time displacements by the discrete wavelengths of light.

Although knowledge about
the way the world works is necessary for wisdom, there are things about the way
the world works that are not knowable and yet are still a part of wisdom. People
cannot know anything more about matter and action other than to believe that
they are the way that they are. In other words, people cannot know why matter
and action are the way that they are, people can only believe that they are the
way that they are. Likewise people cannot know why the universe is the way that
it is, why they are right here, why they are right here right now, or why it is
them and not someone else who are right here right now.

The universe
is made up of discrete particles and collections of discrete actions and
observers infer continuous space and time from those discrete actions. The
universe does not exist first of all as continuous flow of time and a mostly
empty continuous space filled with just a small amount of matter on determinate
paths. Rather the universe exists first of all as a collection discrete aether with
a small amount of aether condensed at the CMB creation into the matter and
light of sources we now observe. The universe is then a pulse of discrete aether
and action as shown above and it is from the action of decoherence that emerges
one of the two dimensions of a continuous time.

Although
action normally integrates energy over continuous time and space for an unbound
source, quantum action is inherent in the matter-scaled Planck constant without
regard to continuous space and time. The matter-scaled Planck constant integrates
the energy of a timeless aether photon and it is from the decay of that aether photon
that time and space emerge from the discrete action of aether. Therefore all
constants of the universe emerge from just the two simple ones of aether
particle mass,

*m*, and the matter-scaled Planck constant,_{ae}*h*. The velocity of an electron spin,_{ae}= h/c^{2}*c/**α*, is constant, and it is from that radius and spin period that both space and time emerge as c and*α*that both*actually vary slowly in cosmic time.*
It is a fundamental
aether decoherence that drives both charge and gravity forces in the shrinking
universe. Thus this notion is subject to measurement and falsification although
the decoherence rate of 8.1e-18 s-1 is still beyond current precision as the
plot shows. As measurement precision increases more and more, science will
eventually measure the fundamental decay and shrinkage that the figure shows…or
science will show that it is some other decay or that decay does not exist at
all. The fundamental decay time and distance of aether appear to center within the
current experimental bounds of continuous spontaneous localization, CSL, as the
figure shows. The difference between CSL and aether decay is that aether decay
and distance are constants derived from the fundamental properties of a
shrinking universe and not some arbitrary CSL parameters (see ref.).

It is the collections
of discrete actions of discrete matter that define sources in an observer’s
universe and so space and time merely emerge from the collections of discrete
action of matter from electron spin. Source matter oscillates with the action of
exchange just as discrete source action oscillates and decays by exchange of discrete
matter. The oscillations of matter and action mean that there are corresponding
amplitudes and phases for the matter exchanges of matter actions. There is a
further phase relationship between the oscillations of matter and action that
then defines a quantum uncertainty principle in the traditional manner except
with action and matter instead of displacement and momentum. This means that
there is a limit to the precision of measuring both matter and action and so
the conjugate variables of matter and action conform to the notions of quantum
field theory.

While
quantum field theory couples matter sources to each other with an infinity of
vacuum oscillators, quantum aether action couples the same matter sources
together with a very large but finite number of aether action oscillators. Thus
the spacetime quantum fields that couple sources to each other in an expanding
universe emerge from the simpler notions of the discrete aether exchange of a
shrinking universe.

General
relativity unites continuous space and time into gravity action that results in
determinate and infinitely divisible spacetime geodesics with no inherent uncertainty. As a result, quantum uncertainty and oscillation
and phase have no meaning for the determinate geodesic paths of relativity. However,
the oscillations of matter action represent gravity as a series of discrete
events for a very weak gravity force.

General
relativity therefore unites discrete matter and action into quantum gravity
action that also results in determinate geodesic paths but now it is discrete
matter and action along those determinate paths that makes them discrete. The
emergence of continuous space and time from a sequence of discrete matter
actions means that sources do follow determinate geodesics. However, within
those paths the uncertainty of discrete matter and action necessarily limits
knowledge of mass and action along those otherwise determinate geodesics. Thus
while a source path follows the determinate geodesic of general relativity,
there are still inherent uncertainties about the matter and action along that
now discrete geodesic path.

Each atom of
matter at the CMB creation entangles with its emitted photon and we see today
these two coupled photons that make up the biphoton resonance of quantum gravity
exchange. The photons of the ancient light created not only matter, but also the
biphoton quantum gravity from the determinate geodesic paths of the cosmic
microwave background.

In summary,
for matter and action to be the fundamental things from which all else emerges,
the universe must be made up of a very large but finite number of particles of
matter called aether. Instead of aether existing in continuous space and time,
though, continuous space and time both emerge from the discrete actions of discrete
aether. Since both gravity and charge derive from the decoherence of quantum
aether, they become in effect scaled versions of each other and the discrete
action of aether provides a fundamental framework for a rational universe.

References

*Experimental bounds on collapse models from gravitational wave detectors*

M. Carlesso,
A. Bassi, P. Falferi, A. Vinante

Here are a
series of blogs with more descriptive words for the nontechnical.

Here are a
series of technical papers only for those who understand the math.